HOW COMMERCIAL AIRPLANES KEEP A STEADY SUPPLY OF FRESH AIR AND HOW THE EMERGENCY OXYGEN MASKS SUPPLY OXYGEN GIVEN THEY ARE NOT HOOKED UP TO ANY AIR TANK

Jimmy K. asks: Why is there a plastic bag attached to airline oxygen masks if they don’t inflate?

Because the economics of having large oxygen tanks aboard airliners simply doesn’t work out (not to mention that the air quality inside the plane would rapidly become unpleasant if fresh air wasn’t constantly supplied, regardless of the oxygen levels), commercial airplanes have a very clever system installed to solve the problem of ultra-low pressure atmosphere at cruising altitudes.

In most modern airliners (the Boeing 787 Dreamliner not withstanding), outside air is “bled off” from the compressor stage of the turbine engines and eventually piped into the passenger areas. However, a bit of processing is needed first as the compressed air is extremely hot (on the order of nearly 400 degrees Fahrenheit or 200 degrees Celsius) at this stage. Thus, before it enters the passenger compartment, it is first allowed to expand and is run through a heat exchanger and air cycle system to cool it off sufficiently. This system also can work as a heater, with some of the hot air mixed in with the cooled air to regulate cabin temperature.

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Once cooled and filtered, the pressurized air, which now has sufficient oxygen density to keep people happily conscious, is piped into the cabin area, usually at levels around 12 psi (about equivalent to atmospheric pressure at 7,000 feet).  Why 12 psi instead of something like sea-level pressures of about 14.7 psi? 12 psi is sufficient for the majority of passengers while simultaneously reducing the structural strain on the aircraft itself over something like sea level atmospheric pressures.

As for the air already in the cabin, this is vented out through an outflow valve (or multiple valves in larger aircraft), usually located near the rear of the plane. (FunNote: Before smoking was banned on commercial aircraft, the area around this outflow valve was generally stained dark brown from tobacco smoke.)

This outflow valve opens and closes automatically to maintain a steady pressure inside the cabin, while the entire system is ensuring that fresh air is continually being piped into and eventually blown out of the aircraft. In fact, while many complain of airplanes seeming “stuffy,” this system ensures that all the air in the aircraft is being completely replaced on average every 2-3 minutes. Yes, that means that your car, house or office is likely significantly more “stuffy” than a commercial airplane flying at 35,000 feet.

(Note: the Boeing 787 Dreamliner handles cabin pressurization a little differently, using a modernized version of the old, somewhat inefficient, electric compressor system seen on many older aircraft.)

Unfortunately, sometimes planes lose cabin pressure. Whatever the cause, the loss of pressure (usually set at atmospheric pressures past 14,000 ft) will result in oxygen masks deploying. From here, useful consciousness may only last as little as 5-15 seconds, depending on remaining cabin pressure, which is why it’s critical to immediately put your mask on, rather than helping someone else first. You can help them much better when you’re not unconscious or dead.

So how do these airline oxygen masks actually work? It turns out, the economics of having a centralized oxygen tank to provide even emergency oxygen for passengers likewise simply doesn’t add up. Similarly, having tiny individual pressurized oxygen tanks also isn’t feasible. In fact, these masks aren’t hooked up to any tank or air line at all. So how are you able to breathe oxygen through them?

Science.

While designs can vary slightly, in general, when you pull on the device to place it over your face, the tug on the mask’s lanyard releases a spring-loaded mechanism that sets off a small explosive charge. (Yep.) The resulting spark triggers a mixture of lead styphnate and tetracene to generate heat, which will eventually cause a chemical reaction that produces oxygen for your mask. (This is why they tell you to tug on the mask to get the oxygen flowing- you’ve got to set off the explosive charge to get the whole thing going.)

That’s right. What you breathe through the mask didn’t begin as pure oxygen. Rather, the plane is equipped with numerous small chemical oxygen generators (also known as “oxygen candles,” about the size of a small package of tennis balls) which contain a mixture of mostly sodium chlorate (NaClO3), less than 5% barium peroxide (BaO2) and less than 1% potassium perchlorate (KClO4). When these chemicals are heated by the lead styphnate and tetracene, each undergoes a reaction that ultimately results in a fair bit of filtered, life sustaining oxygen running through the tube to you.

Of course, you might also smell a faint burning odor, but this is nothing to be alarmed about; it just assures you that the system is working. In fact, if the plane is actually on fire, the masks usually won’t deploy, so as not to make the fire worse with the extra oxygen.

This brings us to the question of why the plastic bag on the breathing apparatus won’t necessarily inflate as you’re using the device. More than just cosmetic, the bags serve as something of a reservoir for oxygen. If you aren’t taking a breath at all (and have a good seal with the mask tight against your face) the bag keeps the precious, continuously flowing oxygen from escaping into the thin air around you, enabling more of the collected oxygen to be taken in when you do take a breath.  When this is happening, or you are breathing out with the valves on the mask releasing much of the used air, the bag may begin to inflate as oxygen collects. When you breathe in, it will deflate.

So why won’t it always inflate at least a little to show its working? To begin with, you may not have a great seal with the mask on your face, particularly if you have facial hair.  This will allow any produced oxygen (and air you exhale) to more readily escape. (As long as the mask is reasonably secure on your face, this should still provide you with sufficient oxygen to get by on as long as the plane isn’t flying above 40,000 feet and the pilot does his or her job and gets the plane down below 10,000 feet as rapidly as safely possible.)

Even if you have a good seal, however, the rate at which the oxygen is generated is often not enough to fully inflate the masks’ bag before you take deep, potentially panicky breaths, deflating it. This is simply because the oxygen generation isn’t on-demand (for the passengers anyway), but simply a continuous-flow production of oxygen.

Despite the potentially slow production, the chemical oxygen generators do provide oxygen at a sufficient rate to sustain passengers, generally designed such that peak oxygen production occurs right away (when the plane may be at very high altitude) with the oxygen production rates tailing off over the course of approximately 12-20 minutes before the system burns itself out.

This should be long enough for the pilots to get the plane low enough so that the air pressure is high enough for (relatively) normal atmospheric breathing. And if you’ve ever been lucky enough to be in this sort of situation, you know that those pilots can get the plane from altitudes like 35,000+ feet to safer atmospheric levels alarmingly quickly in an emergency; while it may not be literally true, it at least can seem like roller coasters have nothing on them, which is a good thing in this case.

Bonus Fact:

  • As a result of the way the system works for pressurizing the airplane cabin and keeping a steady supply of fresh air, the humidity levels are ultra-low, making it so you dehydrate very quickly on flights.  Particularly for long flights, it’s critical then that you drink plenty of fluids. This ultra-low humidity level, combined with the low cabin pressure, also reduces your sense of taste and smell by as much as 30%, which is why airline food generally tastes so bland. To try to compensate for this somewhat, many airlines make sure their food is much more strongly flavored or spiced than you’d normally find appetizing.

Source…..www.today i found out.com

Natarajan

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The Power of Telling It Like It Is….

In Panama, a new study finds that kids are more likely to drink healthier beverages if you speak the truth — subtly.

Children drink soda as they sit in the shade on a hot day. Credit: Reuters/Lucy Nicholson
Slogans that equate drinking water with good health are more effective at steering schoolchildren away from sugary sodas. | Reuters/Lucy Nicholson

What’s the best way to persuade children to drink water instead of unhealthy, sugar-laced beverages? Do you:

A) Tell them it will make them more popular.

B) Tell them it will make them healthier.

C) Tell them it will make them smarter.

D) Just tell them to do it without explaining why.

The correct answer: B.

Turns out honesty is the most persuasive tactic, even for kids, while exaggerated claims and ungrounded mandates can potentially have a negative effect, according to new research by Szu-chi Huang, an associate professor of marketing at Stanford Graduate School of Business. The field study, performed in collaboration with UNICEF, was designed to determine the most effective way to steer schoolchildren in Panama away from unhealthy sodas and other sweetened drinks toward drinking water instead.

Cowritten with Daniella Kupor of Boston University, Michal Maimaran of Northwestern University, and Andrea Weihrauch of the University of Amsterdam, the paper will be published in the Journal of the Association for Consumer Research in January. The research is the first to examine the effects of associating actions with goals in a real-world environment, in this case four elementary schools, where children encounter countless messages daily, Huang notes. Additionally, unlike previous research that has centered on adults, Huang’s study is the first to test the effectiveness of such associations on kids.

Targeting Pre-existing Associations

The school posters imploring students to “Drink Water” tested secondary slogans as well: (left to right) “Make Friends,” nothing, “Be Healthy,” and “Learn Faster.” Credit: Courtesy of Szu-chi Huang

The researchers put up posters in four elementary schools located within 10 miles of each other and of similar size and socioeconomic status. Each school had a kiosk selling bottled water. In a preliminary questionnaire, the researchers found that children strongly associated water consumption with health but saw only a moderate association between water and intelligence. The children held an even weaker association between water consumption and the ability to make friends.

In the main study, each school put up posters with a message unique to its campus. At one school, the posters implored students to drink water and “be healthy.” At another, the signs said that water would help them “learn faster.” At a third school, they declared that consuming water would help students “make friends,” and at a fourth school the signs simply told them to “drink water,” without further explanation. The posters remained on display for a month.

People don’t want to follow an order without any reason. This rule applies to children as well.
Szu-chi Huang

The researchers found that children at the school where posters declared that drinking water leads to good health increased their water consumption by 31%, suggesting that targeting the students’ pre-existing association (that water is healthy) led them to the desired outcome, says Huang.

At the school with posters associating water with learning faster, consumption didn’t change from the pre-study level. And at the school highlighting the questionable association between water and making friends, consumption marginally decreased. That decline may have occurred because the posters linking water to making friends “may have seemed dishonest or confusing,” causing children to shun the advice to drink more water, Huang says.

Avoid Blunt Directives

At the school where posters simply advised the students to drink more water, without stating why, water consumption declined significantly, by 48%. Like the children who were turned off by the attempt to associate drinking water with being popular, these students also may have regarded the blunt directive to drink water as manipulative.

“People don’t want to follow an order without any reason,” says Huang. “This rule applies to children as well.”

In the weeks after the posters were removed, water consumption generally reverted to the pre-study level.

These results suggest that children may need continuous reminders, whether in the form of posters or some other messaging, over time to alter their behavior. Regardless, Huang says, these most recent findings shed light on what kind of messaging and what mode of communication may work to encourage children to modify their habits and help them live healthier lives.

Source….https://www.gsb.stanford.edu/i

Natarajan

My Story: “I Played Role Of Involuntary Clown,” An Inspiring Story Of Blind IAS Officer…

“A conservative estimate of disabled in India is over 2% of the population. Most of them are fighting silent battles every moment and achieving small wins every day.

Belonging to this community, I feel happy and privileged to be recognised and appreciated to such an extent in the past few months. And at the same time with the existence of the likes of Louis Braille, Helen Keller and many more, I feel humbled.

I have always believed the word “handicap” is a union of two positive words handy and cap, both denote a sense of support. As being handy for someone and as a cap, playing the role of shade in the bright sunlight or taking the hits of crashing raindrops.

I was born in a nondescript village called Choudanakuppe in Tumkuru District of Karnataka and attended my village school till Class 4.

Very early, I began facing certain difficulties in reading the blackboard but as a child, I couldn’t comprehend it (the problem). Both my parents were illiterate, busy making ends meet and struggling with my brother who was losing mobility in his legs.

So call it fate and neglect, I lost my vision completely by the time I was 9.

This was a shock to my family and they tried getting me treatment but to no avail. Luckily my uncle made me join a school for the blind in Mysore and I restarted school.

For a freshly blind child, I needed to adapt to develop the orientation before the society relegated me to a position of losers. I had my share of embarrassments from not being able to find a path to the restroom and unable to bear severity of nature’s call I sometimes attended to it in corridors and classes, much to the disgust of people around me. I played the role of an involuntary clown who couldn’t understand the coordinates of normal clothing – wearing it inside out and upside down. But soon I went on to top the class, I got the badge of honour. I completed my education until class 10 in the same school in Mysore; I still choke with emotion when I think of all the years spent there.

I completed graduation where I met my future wife Achintha, my steadfast support through everything. I subsequently went on to find a job. But despite having a job an unsatisfaction brewed in me and I decided to take the UPSC plunge. My wife dedicated close to 10 hours a day just for my preparation, she would read out to me, make audio notes.

I have been told I have come far in life, but one never should forget where one came from. In my mind, the showreel of my frail mother making numerous trips to get a disability certificate and spending Rs 50 on it makes me jolt up even today.

But I tell this story not to jolt you – I tell it because I want to tell each one of you to never stop aspiring and never give up.”

Story By – Kempahonnaiah | IAS 2017 Batch | West Bengal Cadre

Source…

From our friends at

Humans of Lbsnaa  in http://www.thelogicalindian.com

Natarajan

What a 60 ft Bridge in Salem meant for Script writer Karunanidhi ….!

The dialogues Karunanidhi penned from the bridge made cinema halls reverberate with claps and whistles of movie buffs and catapulted him to greater heights in filmdom and in politics.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Even after he became a Chief Minister and a national leader, M Karunanidhi never forgot his humble beginnings. Despite his hectic schedule, Karunanidhi would make sure to travel to a 60-foot bridge on the Yercaud Ghat road from time to time.

He often reminisced of the days when he used to sit there and pen unforgettable dialogues for iconic films like Mandri Kumari.

The dialogues he penned from there made cinema halls reverberate with claps and whistles of movie buffs, and catapulted Karunanidhi to greater heights in filmdom and in politics.

After he moved to Madras, it seemed he missed the panoramic view of Salem city from the mountain heights and the fresh air that he used to enjoy at the 60-foot bridge and longed to return to his favourite joint.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The 60-ft bridge on Yercaud Ghat road where Karunanidhi used to sit and write.

His colourful film career took flight right at Salem. In 1949-50, M Karunanidhi stepped into Modern Theaters as a dialogue writer on the recommendation of poet-cum-lyricist KM Sherif, writes R Venkatasamy, who wrote Mudhalalli, a biography of TR Sundaram, the legendary producer and the owner of Modern Theaters.

Karunanidhi had worked in Coimbatore Central Studios and at many other studios in Kodambakkam, but it was Salem’s Modern Theaters that gave him his big break into the world of Tamil cinema.

The writer of the film Ponmudi, which was under production, had left his work unfinished and TR Sundaram decided to assign Karunanidhi the task of completing it. Sundaram liked his work and Karunanidhi was employed at a monthly salary.

Karunanidhi had with him the script for a stage play based on Tamil epic Kundalakesi. TR Sundaram was impressed by it and figured that it would make a good movie if it was adapted. And this was then converted into the legendary Mandri Kumari.

American movie master Eliss R Duncan, who was the stable director of Modern Theaters, directed the movie. It was a box office hit and made Karunanidhi into an instant celebrity. The film also gave future Chief Minister MG Ramachandran a big turn in his career.

At first, Eliss R Duncan was hesitant to cast MGR as the hero in Mandri Kumari because of a minor curve on his chin. However, Karunanidhi strongly recommended MGR, suggesting that a short moustache can hide the flaw. The idea was accepted and the film took MGR to great heights in his film career and thus forged a lasting bond between him and Karunanidhi, and both, despite becoming political rivals, had a deep mutual respect for each other.

Mandri Kumari was also the first time that the dialogue-writer of the movie was given credit on the movie posters, writes Venkatasamy. Karunanidhi was one of the few celebrities recognised for his signature dialogues.

Karunanidhi’s contemporaries in Modern Theaters were lyricist Kanadasan, MGR and Janaki. The latter two became chief ministers as well. NT Ramarao, who also worked for Modern Theaters, became the Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A rare photo of Karunanidhi with his colleagues at Modern Theaters, including late lyricist Kanadasan

Such was the platform that Modern Theaters gave to talented people. It was a one-of-its-kind studio outside Kollywood that made 118 films in all South Indian languages as well as in English. It produced the first colour film in Tamil – Albabavum Narpathu Thirudarkalum. TR Sundaram was seen as a towering figure and Karunanidhi, MGR and Kanadasan who were celebrities, used to call him, “Mudhalalli” (master), writes the biographer.

What remains of Modern Theaters today is only the iconic arch on the Yercaud Road in Salem.

Karunanidhi’s association with Salem’s Modern Theaters remembered by garlanding a poster on the iconic arch.

There is hardly anyone still alive who remembers Karunanidhi’s life in Salem at Sanathi Street in Fort Salem except Vekatasamy (79). The tiny tiled house where he lived survived till recently.

Whenever Karunanidhi came to Salem, he would drive past the arch to the sixty-foot bridge and spend time there alone, remembering his humble beginnings. For the old-timers, a stopover at the bridge will surely conjure up the unforgettable song “Varai, nee Varai,” as it was here that the song was shot.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The spot on Yercaud Ghat road where Karunanidhi used to sit and write.

The last time he was reported going to the place was in 2009 when he came to inaugurate the hi-tech government hospital in Salem.

Source…..G.Rajasekaran in http://www.the newsminute.com

Natarajan

10th August 2018

 

மற(றை)க்கப்பட்ட உண்மைகள்! – வீட்டில் விளக்கேற்றுங்கள்!….

‘விளக்கு ஏற்றிய வீடு வீணாய் போகாது’ என்று ஒரு பழமொழி உள்ளது.
வீட்டிலும், கோவிலிலும் ஏன் விளக்கேற்றுகிறோம் தெரியுமா?


தீபத்தின் சுடருக்கு, தன்னை சுற்றி உள்ள தேவையற்ற எதிர்மறை சக்திகளை ஈர்க்கும் சக்தி உண்டு.
அவ்வாறு ஈர்க்கும்போது, தானாகவே, ‘பாசிடிவ் எனர்ஜி’ அதிகரிக்கும்.
நம் சுற்றுப்புறம் தெளிவாகவும், பலத்தோடும் காணப்படும். இரண்டு நாள் வீட்டில் விளக்கேற்றாமல் இருந்தால், வீடே மயானம் போல் தோன்றும். எல்லாருமே சோர்வாக இருப்பர்.
நம் உடலில் இருக்கும் ஏழு சக்கரங்களில் மூலாதாரமும், சுவாதிஷ்டானமும், நல்லெண்ணெய் விளக்கு ஏற்றுவதால் துாய்மையடைகிறது. அதேபோல், மணிபூரகம், அனாஹதம் இரண்டும் நெய் விளக்கு ஏற்ற, துாய்மை அடைந்து, நற்பலன்களை அடைகிறது.
நம் உடலில் இருக்கும் நாடிகளில் சூரிய நாடி, சந்திர நாடி, சுஷம்னா நாடி ஆகியவை மிக முக்கியமாக கருதப்படுகிறது.
* சூரிய நாடி, நல்ல சக்தியையும், வெப்பத்தையும் தருகிறது. சந்திர நாடி குளுமையை தருகிறது
* சுஷம்னா நாடி அந்த பரம்பொருளுடன் சம்பந்தப்பட்டு ஆன்மிக பாதையை வகுக்கிறது
* நல்லெண்ணெய் விளக்கு ஏற்ற, சூரிய நாடி சுறுசுறுப்படைகிறது
* நெய் விளக்கு, சுஷம்னா நாடியை துாண்டிவிட உதவுகிறது
* பொதுவாக நெய் தீபம், சகலவித சுகங்களையும் வீட்டிற்கு நலன்களையும் தருகிறது.
திருவிளக்கை எப்போது வேண்டுமானாலும் ஏற்றலாம்; இதற்கு தடையேதும் இல்லை.
ஆனால், பொதுவாக மாலை, 6:30 மணிக்கு ஏற்றுவதே நம் மரபு.
சூரியன் மறைந்ததும், சில விஷ சக்திகள் சுற்றுச்சூழலில் பரவி வீட்டிற்குள்ளும் வர வாய்ப்பிருக்கிறது.
ஒளியின் முன் அந்த விஷ சக்திகள் அடிபட்டு போகும். எனவே, அந்நேரத்தில் விளக்கேற்ற வேண்டும் என்கின்றனர்.
ஒரு நாளிதழில் வெளிவந்த நிகழ்வு இது: அமெரிக்காவில் இருக்கும் தன் மகனின் வீட்டுக்கு சென்றிருந்த ஒரு தாய், மாலையில், மகனும் – மருமகளும் தாமதமாக வீட்டுக்கு வருவதை பார்த்தார். இருவரும் வேலைக்கு செல்பவர்கள்.
ஒருநாள் மகன் முன்னதாகவும், ஒருநாள் மருமகள் முன்னதாகவும் வருவர்.
மகனை அழைத்து, தாமதமாக வரும் காரணம் கேட்க, ‘உனக்கு இதெல்லாம் புரியாதும்மா…
‘எங்கள் இருவருக்கும் பயங்கர, ‘ஸ்ட்ரெஸ்…’ இருவரும், ‘கவுன்சிலிங்’ போய் வருகிறோம்… ஒரு மணி நேரத்துக்கு அந்த டாக்டருக்கு கொடுக்கும் தொகை அதிகம். மிக சிறந்த டாக்டர், அவரது சிகிச்சையில் எல்லாம் சரியாகிவிடும்…’ என்று கூறினான்.
அதற்கு அந்த தாய், ‘நாளை அந்த டாக்டரை பார்க்க போக வேண்டாம்; சீக்கிரம் வீட்டுக்கு வரவேண்டும்…’ என்று கூறினார்.
அடுத்த நாள் மாலை, வீட்டுக்குள் நுழைந்த மகன் – மருமகள் மூக்கை சுகந்த மணம் துளைத்தது.
இருவரையும் கை கால் கழுவி, உடை மாற்றி, பூஜை அறைக்கு வருமாறு கூறினார், தாய்.
அவர்களும் அவ்வாறே செய்தனர். மணம் வீசும் மலர்களின் வாசம்… அழகான தீப ஒளி நிறைந்த அந்த அறையில் சற்றுநேரம் அமர்ந்து, இருவரும் தாமாகவே கண் மூடி அந்த சூழலின் இன்பத்தை அனுபவித்தனர். பின், கண் திறந்தபோது, ‘கவுன்சிலிங்கில் கிடைக்காத அமைதி கிடைத்ததாக சொல்ல…’ தாயார் மகிழ்ந்தார்.
இன்னொரு விஷயம்…
வீட்டில் பெண் குழந்தைகள் இருந்தால், அவர்களை தினமும் விளக்கேற்றும்படி சொல்ல வேண்டும்.
இப்படி செய்தால், அவர்களின் முகப்பொலிவு பன்மடங்கு கூடும். விளக்கேற்றிய வீடு, வீண் போகாது.

 பி.எஸ்.புஷ்பலதா in http://www.dinamalar.com

natarajan

This image of a migrant child went viral. Here’s the story behind it……

Photographer John Moore, who took the picture that has come to symbolise the horror of the new family-separation policy in the United States, reveals what happened that night.

MCALLEN, TX – JUNE 12: A two-year-old Honduran asylum seeker cries as her mother is searched and detained near the U.S.-Mexico border on June 12, 2018 in McAllen, Texas. The asylum seekers had rafted across the Rio Grande from Mexico and were detained by U.S. Border Patrol agents before being sent to a processing center for possible separation. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) is executing the Trump administration’s “zero tolerance” policy towards undocumented immigrants. U.S. Attorney General Jeff Sessions also said that domestic and gang violence in immigrants’ country of origin would no longer qualify them for political asylum status. (Photo by John Moore/Getty Images)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A two-year-old girl in a bright pink shirt is crying. It’s the middle of the night, and she’s only visible thanks to bright lights, likely from cars and cameras. She’s sobbing, her head tilted back in fear as she looks up at a strange man touching her mother. But nobody can soothe her.

This image of a Honduran girl crying as United States Border Patrol agents search her mother has come to represent the heartbreak being experienced by illegal immigrants separated from their children.

Pulitzer prize-winning photographer John Moore has been documenting the immigrant experience for a decade, riding along with both Border Patrol agents and immigrant trains in order to get the story.

Speaking of the image, he speaks about the June 12 ride-along that resulted in the emblematic picture — not to mention the other heartbreaking photos he captured of this mother and child.

That fateful night                                                                                                                                   

On June 12, after seeking access, he accompanied Border Patrol agents to the banks of the Rio GrandeRiver on the outskirts of McAllen, Texas.

Waiting with the guards for hours, he finally heard rafts coming across the river. They waited a little longer and then suddenly moved in to see nearly dozen of them – mostly women and children.

Describing that moment itself, Moore says, “Most of these families were scared, to various degrees. “I doubt any of them had ever done anything like this before — flee their home countries with their children, travelling thousands of miles through dangerous conditions to seek political asylum in the United States, many arriving in the dead of night.”

While the agents were trying to get the families into buses, he finally spoke to one woman who identified herself as a Honduran. She was travelling with her two-year-old. “The mother told me they had been travelling for a full month and were exhausted,” says Moore, who speaks Spanish. “They were taken into custody with a group of about 20 immigrants, mostly women and children, at about 11 pm,” he was quoted as saying to Getty Images FOTO.

Describing what happened next, Moore says, “Before transporting them to a processing center, transportation officers body searched everyone and the mother was one of the last. She was told to set the child down, while she was searched. The little girl immediately started crying. While it’s not uncommon for toddlers to feel separation anxiety, this would have been stressful for any child. I took only a few photographs and was almost overcome with emotion myself. Then very quickly, they were in the van, and I stopped to take a few deep breaths.”

Moore says he doesn’t know what became of the 2-year-old Honduran girl, adding that the asylum seekers he photographed likely had no idea of the new “zero tolerance” policy that has led to families being separated from their children, since they had been travelling for a month under harsh circumstances.

Source….www.rediffmail.com

Natarajan

MCALLEN, TX – JUNE 12: A U.S. Border Patrol vehicle illuminates a group of Central American asylum seekers before taking them into custody near the U.S.-Mexico border on June 12, 2018 in McAllen, Texas. The group of women and children had rafted across the Rio Grande from Mexico and were detained by U.S. Border Patrol agents before being sent to a processing center for possible separation. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) is executing the Trump administration’s zero tolerance policy towards undocumented immigrants. U.S. Attorney General Jeff Sessions also said that domestic and gang violence in immigrants’ country of origin would no longer qualify them for political asylum status. (Photo by John Moore/Getty Images)

“எட்டு அடி குழியில் 3000 லிட்டர் மழை நீர் சேமிப்பு” – அசத்தும் கோயம்புத்தூர்காரர்கள்!

 

“மழை நீர்… உயிர் நீர்…”, “மரம் வளர்ப்போம்; மழை பெறுவோம்…” இப்படி மழை நீருக்காக ஏராளமான வாசகங்கள் பெரும்பாலும், வாகனங்களின் பின்புறம்தான் எழுதப்படுகின்றன. கான்கிரீட் காடான நகரங்களில் மழை நீர், சாக்கடையிலும், கடலிலும்தான் கலக்கின்றன. பெய்யும் மழை நீரைச் சேகரிக்க முடியாமல், கோடை காலத்தில், தண்ணீர் பஞ்சம் ஏற்பட்டு, கேன் தண்ணீரை நம்பி காலத்தை ஓட்டி வருகிறோம்.

கோவையில் இந்தாண்டு கோடை காலம் முதலே நல்ல மழை பெய்து வருகிறது. கோவையில் ஓராண்டில் பெய்யும் சராசரி மழை அளவு 620 மி.மீட்டர். இந்த நீரைச் சேகரித்தாலே குடிநீர் பஞ்சம் எட்டிக்கூட பார்க்காது. ஆனால், பெய்யும் மழை நீரைச் சேகரிக்க முடியாததால், கடந்த சில ஆண்டுகளாக, கோவையில் கோடை காலத்தில் கடுமையான தண்ணீர் பஞ்சம் ஏற்படுகிறது. நிலத்தடி நீர் மட்டமும் கணிசமாகக் குறைந்துவிட்டது.

இந்நிலையில், கோவையில் மழை நீரைச் சேமிப்பதற்காக, பொது இடங்களில், மழைநீர் சேகரிப்புக் கிணற்றை தன்னார்வலர்கள் அமைத்து வருகின்றனர். அதன்படி, இந்தியாவின் “மழைநீர் மனிதன்” என்று அழைக்கப்படும் சேகர் ராகவனின் ஆலோசனைப்படி, ரேக் அமைப்பு, கோவை குளங்கள் பாதுகாப்பு அமைப்பு மற்றும் சில நல்ல உள்ளங்கள் உதவியுடன், கோவை மாநகராட்சியுடன் இணைந்து மழைநீர் சேகரிப்பு கிணறை அமைத்து வருகின்றனர்.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

மழைநீர் சேகரிப்பு கிணறு

மழை நீர் அதிகளவில் வீணாகக்கூடிய பொது இடங்களில், குழி தோண்டி, அதில் கான்கிரீட் ரிங்கை அமைத்தால் போதும். உதாரணத்துக்கு எட்டு அடி குழிதோண்டி, அதில் தொட்டி போல, நான்கு அடி விட்டமுள்ள, காங்கிரீட் ரிங்கை இறக்கி வைத்தால்போதும். சராசரியாக எட்டு அடி ஆழமுள்ள குழியில் 3,000 லிட்டர் நீரை சேமிக்கலாம். இதில் சேமிக்கப்படும் நீர், கொஞ்சம், கொஞ்சமாக நிலத்தில் இறங்கும். இதன் மூலம், சுற்றுவட்டாரப் பகுதிகளில் நிலத்தடி நீர் மட்டம் உயரும். சென்னையில் வெற்றி பெற்ற இந்த மழைநீர் சேகரிப்புக்கிணறுகளை, கோவையில் முதல்கட்டமாக, குறிச்சி பகுதியில் மாநகராட்சிக்கு சொந்தமான ரிசர்வ் சைட்டிலும், துடியலூர் பகுதியிலும் நடைமுறைப்படுத்தியுள்ளனர்.

இதுகுறித்து சேகர் ராகவன், “பூமிக்குள் நீர் இறங்குவதற்கு, 10 முதல் 15 அடி ஆழத்துக்கு குழி தோண்டலாம்.  நமக்கு தகுந்தாற்போல் ரிங் அமைத்துக் கொள்ளலாம். ஆண்டுக்கு ஒரு முறை மட்டும் இதைச் சுத்தம் செய்தால் போதும். இதை வீடுகளிலும் அமைக்கலாம். தெருக்களின் ஓரமாகவும் அமைக்கலாம். நீர் சேமித்து வைக்கும் தொட்டியாக இதைப் பார்க்கக் கூடாது. நீரை நிலத்தடிக்கு அனுப்பி வைக்கும் திட்டமாகத்தான் பார்க்கவேண்டும். சென்னையில் பல இடங்களில் இந்த மழைநீர் சேகரிப்புக் கிணற்றை அமைத்துள்ளோம். இதன் மூலம் வெள்ள அபாயத்தையும் தவிர்க்கலாம். நிலத்தடி நீர் அளவையும் அதிகரிக்கலாம். குறிப்பாக, அடுக்குமாடி குடியிருப்புப் பகுதிகளில் இதுபோன்ற கிணறுகளை அமைப்பது மிகவும் நல்லது. நிலத்தடி நீர் என்பது, வங்கியை போன்றது. அதில் தண்ணீரைச் செலுத்தினால்தான், மீண்டும் அதில் இருந்து, தண்ணீரை எடுக்க  முடியும். 10 அடி ஆழம், 3 அடி காங்கிரீட் ரிங்குடன் கூடிய மழை நீர் சேகரிப்பு கிணறை அமைக்க 12 ஆயிரம் ரூபாய் ஆகும்” என்றார்.

ரேக் (Raac) அமைப்பின் ரவீந்திரன், “தற்போதைக்கு, பெரும்பாலான பகுதிகளில், மழை நீரைச் சேகரிப்பதற்காக, 200 அடிக்கு போர் போட்டு, ஆறு அடிக்கு குழித் தோண்டி, அதில் கற்களை போடுவார்கள். இதற்கு 75 ஆயிரம் ரூபாய்வரை செலவாகும். எல்லோராலும் இதை அமைக்க முடியாது. அவற்றை பராமரிப்பதும் கடினம். ஆனால், மழை நீர் சேகரிப்புக் கிணறுகளை அமைக்க அவ்வளவு செலவு ஆகாது. இதை, பராமரிப்பதும் மிகவும் எளிது. 15 ஆயிரம் ரூபாய் செலவுசெய்து ஓர் கிணற்றை அமைத்தால், அதன் மூலம் 15 ஆண்டுகளுக்கு மழை நீரைச் சேமிக்கலாம். பொது இடங்களில் மழை நீரைச் சேமிப்பதற்கு இது மிகவும் எளிதான வழி. இதுதொடர்பாக, மக்களிடையே விழிப்பு உணர்வும் செய்து வருகிறோம். மழைக்காலம் முழுவதுமே மழை நீர் சேகரிப்புக் கிணற்றை அமைக்கத் திட்டமிட்டுள்ளோம்”  என்றார்.

சமூக ஆர்வலர் டிம்பிள் கூறுகையில், “சென்னை அண்ணாநகரில் என் உறவினர் வீடு உள்ளது. அவர்களுடையே தெருவே லாரி தண்ணீரை பிடித்துக் கொண்டிருக்கும். ஆனால், இவர்கள் பிடிக்க மாட்டார்கள். அப்போதுதான், மழைநீர் சேகரிப்பு கிணறு குறித்துத் தெரியவந்தது. அப்போதிலிருந்தே, இந்தத் திட்டத்தைக் கோவைக்கு கொண்டு வரவேண்டும் என்று ஆசை இருந்தது. எங்களது அப்பார்ட்மென்ட் அருகே, இப்படி வீணாகும் மழைநீரை பார்க்கும்போது, எனக்கு வருத்தமாக இருக்கும். பின்னர், சேகர் ராகவனுடன் ஆலோசித்து, எங்களுடைய அப்பார்ட்மென்ட் அருகே உள்ள ரிசர்வ் சைட்டில் கிணறு அமைத்தோம். 2,500 சதுரடி பகுதியில் பெய்யும் மழை நீர், இதில் சேமிக்கப்படும். கோவை முழுவதும் இதுபோன்று 44 ஆயிரம் குழிகள் அமைக்கலாம் என்கின்றனர். அப்படி அமைக்கும்போது, நிலத்தடி நீரின் அளவு ஒன்பது மீட்டர் வரை அதிகரிக்கும். எனவே, பள்ளிகள், அரசு அலுவலகங்கள், ஷாப்பிங் மால்கள் போன்ற பகுதிகளில் இதுபோன்ற கிணறுகளை அமைக்கலாம். அந்தப் பகுதிகளில் உள்ள மக்கள் இணைந்து, தங்களின் பங்களிப்பில்கூட இதுபோன்று குழிகளை அமைக்கலாம்” என்றார்.

மழை பெய்வதற்கு முயற்சி செய்யாவிடினும், குறைந்தது பெய்யும் மழை நீரையாவது சேமிக்க முன் வருவோம்…!

Source….. http://www.vikatan.com

Natarajan