HOW COMMERCIAL AIRPLANES KEEP A STEADY SUPPLY OF FRESH AIR AND HOW THE EMERGENCY OXYGEN MASKS SUPPLY OXYGEN GIVEN THEY ARE NOT HOOKED UP TO ANY AIR TANK

Jimmy K. asks: Why is there a plastic bag attached to airline oxygen masks if they don’t inflate?

Because the economics of having large oxygen tanks aboard airliners simply doesn’t work out (not to mention that the air quality inside the plane would rapidly become unpleasant if fresh air wasn’t constantly supplied, regardless of the oxygen levels), commercial airplanes have a very clever system installed to solve the problem of ultra-low pressure atmosphere at cruising altitudes.

In most modern airliners (the Boeing 787 Dreamliner not withstanding), outside air is “bled off” from the compressor stage of the turbine engines and eventually piped into the passenger areas. However, a bit of processing is needed first as the compressed air is extremely hot (on the order of nearly 400 degrees Fahrenheit or 200 degrees Celsius) at this stage. Thus, before it enters the passenger compartment, it is first allowed to expand and is run through a heat exchanger and air cycle system to cool it off sufficiently. This system also can work as a heater, with some of the hot air mixed in with the cooled air to regulate cabin temperature.

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Once cooled and filtered, the pressurized air, which now has sufficient oxygen density to keep people happily conscious, is piped into the cabin area, usually at levels around 12 psi (about equivalent to atmospheric pressure at 7,000 feet).  Why 12 psi instead of something like sea-level pressures of about 14.7 psi? 12 psi is sufficient for the majority of passengers while simultaneously reducing the structural strain on the aircraft itself over something like sea level atmospheric pressures.

As for the air already in the cabin, this is vented out through an outflow valve (or multiple valves in larger aircraft), usually located near the rear of the plane. (FunNote: Before smoking was banned on commercial aircraft, the area around this outflow valve was generally stained dark brown from tobacco smoke.)

This outflow valve opens and closes automatically to maintain a steady pressure inside the cabin, while the entire system is ensuring that fresh air is continually being piped into and eventually blown out of the aircraft. In fact, while many complain of airplanes seeming “stuffy,” this system ensures that all the air in the aircraft is being completely replaced on average every 2-3 minutes. Yes, that means that your car, house or office is likely significantly more “stuffy” than a commercial airplane flying at 35,000 feet.

(Note: the Boeing 787 Dreamliner handles cabin pressurization a little differently, using a modernized version of the old, somewhat inefficient, electric compressor system seen on many older aircraft.)

Unfortunately, sometimes planes lose cabin pressure. Whatever the cause, the loss of pressure (usually set at atmospheric pressures past 14,000 ft) will result in oxygen masks deploying. From here, useful consciousness may only last as little as 5-15 seconds, depending on remaining cabin pressure, which is why it’s critical to immediately put your mask on, rather than helping someone else first. You can help them much better when you’re not unconscious or dead.

So how do these airline oxygen masks actually work? It turns out, the economics of having a centralized oxygen tank to provide even emergency oxygen for passengers likewise simply doesn’t add up. Similarly, having tiny individual pressurized oxygen tanks also isn’t feasible. In fact, these masks aren’t hooked up to any tank or air line at all. So how are you able to breathe oxygen through them?

Science.

While designs can vary slightly, in general, when you pull on the device to place it over your face, the tug on the mask’s lanyard releases a spring-loaded mechanism that sets off a small explosive charge. (Yep.) The resulting spark triggers a mixture of lead styphnate and tetracene to generate heat, which will eventually cause a chemical reaction that produces oxygen for your mask. (This is why they tell you to tug on the mask to get the oxygen flowing- you’ve got to set off the explosive charge to get the whole thing going.)

That’s right. What you breathe through the mask didn’t begin as pure oxygen. Rather, the plane is equipped with numerous small chemical oxygen generators (also known as “oxygen candles,” about the size of a small package of tennis balls) which contain a mixture of mostly sodium chlorate (NaClO3), less than 5% barium peroxide (BaO2) and less than 1% potassium perchlorate (KClO4). When these chemicals are heated by the lead styphnate and tetracene, each undergoes a reaction that ultimately results in a fair bit of filtered, life sustaining oxygen running through the tube to you.

Of course, you might also smell a faint burning odor, but this is nothing to be alarmed about; it just assures you that the system is working. In fact, if the plane is actually on fire, the masks usually won’t deploy, so as not to make the fire worse with the extra oxygen.

This brings us to the question of why the plastic bag on the breathing apparatus won’t necessarily inflate as you’re using the device. More than just cosmetic, the bags serve as something of a reservoir for oxygen. If you aren’t taking a breath at all (and have a good seal with the mask tight against your face) the bag keeps the precious, continuously flowing oxygen from escaping into the thin air around you, enabling more of the collected oxygen to be taken in when you do take a breath.  When this is happening, or you are breathing out with the valves on the mask releasing much of the used air, the bag may begin to inflate as oxygen collects. When you breathe in, it will deflate.

So why won’t it always inflate at least a little to show its working? To begin with, you may not have a great seal with the mask on your face, particularly if you have facial hair.  This will allow any produced oxygen (and air you exhale) to more readily escape. (As long as the mask is reasonably secure on your face, this should still provide you with sufficient oxygen to get by on as long as the plane isn’t flying above 40,000 feet and the pilot does his or her job and gets the plane down below 10,000 feet as rapidly as safely possible.)

Even if you have a good seal, however, the rate at which the oxygen is generated is often not enough to fully inflate the masks’ bag before you take deep, potentially panicky breaths, deflating it. This is simply because the oxygen generation isn’t on-demand (for the passengers anyway), but simply a continuous-flow production of oxygen.

Despite the potentially slow production, the chemical oxygen generators do provide oxygen at a sufficient rate to sustain passengers, generally designed such that peak oxygen production occurs right away (when the plane may be at very high altitude) with the oxygen production rates tailing off over the course of approximately 12-20 minutes before the system burns itself out.

This should be long enough for the pilots to get the plane low enough so that the air pressure is high enough for (relatively) normal atmospheric breathing. And if you’ve ever been lucky enough to be in this sort of situation, you know that those pilots can get the plane from altitudes like 35,000+ feet to safer atmospheric levels alarmingly quickly in an emergency; while it may not be literally true, it at least can seem like roller coasters have nothing on them, which is a good thing in this case.

Bonus Fact:

  • As a result of the way the system works for pressurizing the airplane cabin and keeping a steady supply of fresh air, the humidity levels are ultra-low, making it so you dehydrate very quickly on flights.  Particularly for long flights, it’s critical then that you drink plenty of fluids. This ultra-low humidity level, combined with the low cabin pressure, also reduces your sense of taste and smell by as much as 30%, which is why airline food generally tastes so bland. To try to compensate for this somewhat, many airlines make sure their food is much more strongly flavored or spiced than you’d normally find appetizing.

Source…..www.today i found out.com

Natarajan

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The Power of Telling It Like It Is….

In Panama, a new study finds that kids are more likely to drink healthier beverages if you speak the truth — subtly.

Children drink soda as they sit in the shade on a hot day. Credit: Reuters/Lucy Nicholson
Slogans that equate drinking water with good health are more effective at steering schoolchildren away from sugary sodas. | Reuters/Lucy Nicholson

What’s the best way to persuade children to drink water instead of unhealthy, sugar-laced beverages? Do you:

A) Tell them it will make them more popular.

B) Tell them it will make them healthier.

C) Tell them it will make them smarter.

D) Just tell them to do it without explaining why.

The correct answer: B.

Turns out honesty is the most persuasive tactic, even for kids, while exaggerated claims and ungrounded mandates can potentially have a negative effect, according to new research by Szu-chi Huang, an associate professor of marketing at Stanford Graduate School of Business. The field study, performed in collaboration with UNICEF, was designed to determine the most effective way to steer schoolchildren in Panama away from unhealthy sodas and other sweetened drinks toward drinking water instead.

Cowritten with Daniella Kupor of Boston University, Michal Maimaran of Northwestern University, and Andrea Weihrauch of the University of Amsterdam, the paper will be published in the Journal of the Association for Consumer Research in January. The research is the first to examine the effects of associating actions with goals in a real-world environment, in this case four elementary schools, where children encounter countless messages daily, Huang notes. Additionally, unlike previous research that has centered on adults, Huang’s study is the first to test the effectiveness of such associations on kids.

Targeting Pre-existing Associations

The school posters imploring students to “Drink Water” tested secondary slogans as well: (left to right) “Make Friends,” nothing, “Be Healthy,” and “Learn Faster.” Credit: Courtesy of Szu-chi Huang

The researchers put up posters in four elementary schools located within 10 miles of each other and of similar size and socioeconomic status. Each school had a kiosk selling bottled water. In a preliminary questionnaire, the researchers found that children strongly associated water consumption with health but saw only a moderate association between water and intelligence. The children held an even weaker association between water consumption and the ability to make friends.

In the main study, each school put up posters with a message unique to its campus. At one school, the posters implored students to drink water and “be healthy.” At another, the signs said that water would help them “learn faster.” At a third school, they declared that consuming water would help students “make friends,” and at a fourth school the signs simply told them to “drink water,” without further explanation. The posters remained on display for a month.

People don’t want to follow an order without any reason. This rule applies to children as well.
Szu-chi Huang

The researchers found that children at the school where posters declared that drinking water leads to good health increased their water consumption by 31%, suggesting that targeting the students’ pre-existing association (that water is healthy) led them to the desired outcome, says Huang.

At the school with posters associating water with learning faster, consumption didn’t change from the pre-study level. And at the school highlighting the questionable association between water and making friends, consumption marginally decreased. That decline may have occurred because the posters linking water to making friends “may have seemed dishonest or confusing,” causing children to shun the advice to drink more water, Huang says.

Avoid Blunt Directives

At the school where posters simply advised the students to drink more water, without stating why, water consumption declined significantly, by 48%. Like the children who were turned off by the attempt to associate drinking water with being popular, these students also may have regarded the blunt directive to drink water as manipulative.

“People don’t want to follow an order without any reason,” says Huang. “This rule applies to children as well.”

In the weeks after the posters were removed, water consumption generally reverted to the pre-study level.

These results suggest that children may need continuous reminders, whether in the form of posters or some other messaging, over time to alter their behavior. Regardless, Huang says, these most recent findings shed light on what kind of messaging and what mode of communication may work to encourage children to modify their habits and help them live healthier lives.

Source….https://www.gsb.stanford.edu/i

Natarajan

Sikkim’s Pakyong Airport Starts Operations: 5 Reasons Why It’s an Engineering Feat!

The Pakyong airport, finally puts Sikkim on India’s aviation map and is an example of stellar engineering.

If you’re flying to Sikkim, the nearest airport is at Bagdogra, in West Bengal, nearly 124 kms from the state capital, Gangtok.

The Pakyong airport now puts Sikkim on India’s aviation map. It is one of the five highest airports in the country and was built over several years, costing an estimated Rs 350 crore.

“The Pakyong (Gangtok) Airport at Sikkim got a license today for scheduled operations. It’s an engineering marvel at a height of more than 4,500 ft in a tough terrain. Will pave way for direct air connectivity to our lovely state of Sikkim, giving a boost to tourism & economic growth,” tweeted Civil Aviation Minister Suresh Prabhu.

Tourists, migrant workers and locals will soon fly on the low-cost airline SpiceJet, after it was granted permission to fly to Pakyong from Kolkata under the Centre’s regional connectivity scheme.

 

 

 

 

 

 

The picturesque runway of the Pakyong Airport in Sikkim. Image Credit: Soumen Mukherjee

1. The Pakyong airport in Sikkim is spread over 990 acres and is the first greenfield airport to be constructed in the north-east region of the country.
2. Over the years, several landslides near the runway resulted in work being suspended twice, but it was finally constructed and earlier this year, a fixed-wing 19-seater Dornier 228 IAF aircraft landed on the runway.
3. The airport is considered an engineering marvel because of its terrain. It is stationed at more than 4,500 feet and lies snugly between the Himalayas.
4. It is around 30 km from Sikkim’s state capital, Gangtok, and is located around 60 km away from the Indo-China border, giving it strategic importance. It is believed that the Indian Air Force (IAF) will be able to land various types of aircraft on the airport’s runway.
5. Until now, Sikkim was the only state in the country which did not have an airport. The Pakyong airport is the 100th functional airport in India.

According to MoneyControl, as per a previous proposal by the Ministry of Home Affairs, due to its “strategically important” location, the security of the Pakyong airport should be handled by the Central Industrial Security Force (CISF). The CISF is a professional aviation security force that handles 59 airports across the country.

The new airport will be an excellent opportunity for those of you who haven’t yet experienced this beautiful mountainous abode.

Source………Rayomand Engineer  in http://www.the betterindia.com

Natarajan

Sweden to India: How a Cup of Masala Chai Fuelled IKEA’s Journey to Hyderabad!….

Known as the world’s largest furniture dealer, IKEA has finally set up its first-ever India store in Hyderabad. All thanks to a humble cup of chai!

Founded in 1943 by Swede Ingvar Kamprad and headquartered in the Netherlands, furniture giant IKEA makes revenue worth €38.3 billion with 411 outlets in 49 countries.

Deemed as the world’s largest furniture dealer, IKEA has finally set up it

s first-ever store on a 13-acre campus in HITEC city  Hydearbad.

And while the numerous conversations CEO of IKEA India Juvencio Maeztu had with Indian biggies may be credited for the 2012 plan to finally take shape, there is a backstory many aren’t aware of. It’s how the 48-year-old bossman who relocated from London to Delhi’s NCR Region found a home away from home. All over a cup of masala chai.

It was 2012. Juvencio Maeztu had only arrived in India as the CEO of IKEA India. The switch from London to the bustling city of the National Capital Region was anything but easy.

Speaking to the Economic Times, the 48-year-old recalls, “I had many concerns. I am too small, and India is too big. Could I understand India, its size, its complexity and diversity? Will my European roots constrain me?”

His mind was clouded with doubts, but he had far more important matters to attend. For instance, his morning appointment at the FRRO (Foreigners Regional Registration Office) in Delhi. And he needed a passport-size photograph.

And so, his driver drove through the lanes of NCR, before making a halt at one of the many hole-in-the-wall photography studios. The one they stopped at was run by an old gentleman.

He just had to take a photograph and be on his way. How much time could it possibly take? He couldn’t be late for his appointment.

And so, the CEO entered the shop and asked the man, “Can you take my photo?”
“Yes,” came the reply.
“How long will it take?” Maeztu asked hesitantly
“Five minutes,” the man said.

The photo was clicked. But the wait for the 5 min – ‘N’ copies of the photograph dragged on for over 15 minutes. The printer was old and dusty, takes time to warm up, the man told him.

But he was quick to offer him – “Masala chai?” he asked.

“No” came the curt reply. Even as the man struggled with the printer, he kept persuading Maeztu to drink a cup of chai. An exasperated Maeztu gave him a brusque, “No”.

It was at this time that the photographer asked, “Sir, what’s the point of life if you cannot enjoy a masala chai for five minutes?”

“Something clicked,” Maetzu told the publication. He moved to take a seat, drank the cup of masala chai. The appointment was forgotten, and the two men chatted for over an hour that day.

He may have missed his FRRO appointment, but Maetzu says, “That was the moment I connected with India. It was a turning point.”

He had finally found a home away from home.

After a long wait of six years, IKEA has now made its debut in India.

While land has been acquired in Gurugram, Bengaluru and Mumbai, the retail stores will only come up in the next few years. With a staff strength of 535 and an investment of Rs 10,500 crore, the furniture giant is here to make it big reported the publication. The current number of employees though is estimated to be around 950 people directly, about 1500 at its store in Hyderabad and aims to hire another 15,000 employees as it expands its operations.

“We are here for the long term. We think of 100 years when we think of our strategy. I have taken no shortcuts. More importantly, I have had no pressure (from the headquarters) to take shortcuts. In the next 100 years, the sheer size of India makes it important. There are other super big reasons. India is challenging us to find better ways to do business. This is a market you need to learn and not come into with an attitude that you know everything,” he said.

The vision is to also have over 25 stores and 20,000 employees in India by 2030.

The report adds how India is the first market where IKEA is rolling out a multi-channel retail online and offline strategy from day one. It is also planning to explore the use of eco-friendly raw materials like bamboo, coconut waste, water hyacinth and recycled PET.

Apart from working with over 80,000 farmers to boost cotton production, it is also helping skill 1,200 women artisans with the UNDP under its programme ‘Disha’ and boost employment from underprivileged communities.

Seems like a journey that began with one cup of masala chai came a long way after all!

 

 

 

 

 

 

The staff at IKEA Hyderabad. Source: Facebook
Source….
http://www.thebetterindia.com

What a 60 ft Bridge in Salem meant for Script writer Karunanidhi ….!

The dialogues Karunanidhi penned from the bridge made cinema halls reverberate with claps and whistles of movie buffs and catapulted him to greater heights in filmdom and in politics.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Even after he became a Chief Minister and a national leader, M Karunanidhi never forgot his humble beginnings. Despite his hectic schedule, Karunanidhi would make sure to travel to a 60-foot bridge on the Yercaud Ghat road from time to time.

He often reminisced of the days when he used to sit there and pen unforgettable dialogues for iconic films like Mandri Kumari.

The dialogues he penned from there made cinema halls reverberate with claps and whistles of movie buffs, and catapulted Karunanidhi to greater heights in filmdom and in politics.

After he moved to Madras, it seemed he missed the panoramic view of Salem city from the mountain heights and the fresh air that he used to enjoy at the 60-foot bridge and longed to return to his favourite joint.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The 60-ft bridge on Yercaud Ghat road where Karunanidhi used to sit and write.

His colourful film career took flight right at Salem. In 1949-50, M Karunanidhi stepped into Modern Theaters as a dialogue writer on the recommendation of poet-cum-lyricist KM Sherif, writes R Venkatasamy, who wrote Mudhalalli, a biography of TR Sundaram, the legendary producer and the owner of Modern Theaters.

Karunanidhi had worked in Coimbatore Central Studios and at many other studios in Kodambakkam, but it was Salem’s Modern Theaters that gave him his big break into the world of Tamil cinema.

The writer of the film Ponmudi, which was under production, had left his work unfinished and TR Sundaram decided to assign Karunanidhi the task of completing it. Sundaram liked his work and Karunanidhi was employed at a monthly salary.

Karunanidhi had with him the script for a stage play based on Tamil epic Kundalakesi. TR Sundaram was impressed by it and figured that it would make a good movie if it was adapted. And this was then converted into the legendary Mandri Kumari.

American movie master Eliss R Duncan, who was the stable director of Modern Theaters, directed the movie. It was a box office hit and made Karunanidhi into an instant celebrity. The film also gave future Chief Minister MG Ramachandran a big turn in his career.

At first, Eliss R Duncan was hesitant to cast MGR as the hero in Mandri Kumari because of a minor curve on his chin. However, Karunanidhi strongly recommended MGR, suggesting that a short moustache can hide the flaw. The idea was accepted and the film took MGR to great heights in his film career and thus forged a lasting bond between him and Karunanidhi, and both, despite becoming political rivals, had a deep mutual respect for each other.

Mandri Kumari was also the first time that the dialogue-writer of the movie was given credit on the movie posters, writes Venkatasamy. Karunanidhi was one of the few celebrities recognised for his signature dialogues.

Karunanidhi’s contemporaries in Modern Theaters were lyricist Kanadasan, MGR and Janaki. The latter two became chief ministers as well. NT Ramarao, who also worked for Modern Theaters, became the Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A rare photo of Karunanidhi with his colleagues at Modern Theaters, including late lyricist Kanadasan

Such was the platform that Modern Theaters gave to talented people. It was a one-of-its-kind studio outside Kollywood that made 118 films in all South Indian languages as well as in English. It produced the first colour film in Tamil – Albabavum Narpathu Thirudarkalum. TR Sundaram was seen as a towering figure and Karunanidhi, MGR and Kanadasan who were celebrities, used to call him, “Mudhalalli” (master), writes the biographer.

What remains of Modern Theaters today is only the iconic arch on the Yercaud Road in Salem.

Karunanidhi’s association with Salem’s Modern Theaters remembered by garlanding a poster on the iconic arch.

There is hardly anyone still alive who remembers Karunanidhi’s life in Salem at Sanathi Street in Fort Salem except Vekatasamy (79). The tiny tiled house where he lived survived till recently.

Whenever Karunanidhi came to Salem, he would drive past the arch to the sixty-foot bridge and spend time there alone, remembering his humble beginnings. For the old-timers, a stopover at the bridge will surely conjure up the unforgettable song “Varai, nee Varai,” as it was here that the song was shot.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The spot on Yercaud Ghat road where Karunanidhi used to sit and write.

The last time he was reported going to the place was in 2009 when he came to inaugurate the hi-tech government hospital in Salem.

Source…..G.Rajasekaran in http://www.the newsminute.com

Natarajan

10th August 2018

 

மற(றை)க்கப்பட்ட உண்மைகள்! – வீட்டில் விளக்கேற்றுங்கள்!….

‘விளக்கு ஏற்றிய வீடு வீணாய் போகாது’ என்று ஒரு பழமொழி உள்ளது.
வீட்டிலும், கோவிலிலும் ஏன் விளக்கேற்றுகிறோம் தெரியுமா?


தீபத்தின் சுடருக்கு, தன்னை சுற்றி உள்ள தேவையற்ற எதிர்மறை சக்திகளை ஈர்க்கும் சக்தி உண்டு.
அவ்வாறு ஈர்க்கும்போது, தானாகவே, ‘பாசிடிவ் எனர்ஜி’ அதிகரிக்கும்.
நம் சுற்றுப்புறம் தெளிவாகவும், பலத்தோடும் காணப்படும். இரண்டு நாள் வீட்டில் விளக்கேற்றாமல் இருந்தால், வீடே மயானம் போல் தோன்றும். எல்லாருமே சோர்வாக இருப்பர்.
நம் உடலில் இருக்கும் ஏழு சக்கரங்களில் மூலாதாரமும், சுவாதிஷ்டானமும், நல்லெண்ணெய் விளக்கு ஏற்றுவதால் துாய்மையடைகிறது. அதேபோல், மணிபூரகம், அனாஹதம் இரண்டும் நெய் விளக்கு ஏற்ற, துாய்மை அடைந்து, நற்பலன்களை அடைகிறது.
நம் உடலில் இருக்கும் நாடிகளில் சூரிய நாடி, சந்திர நாடி, சுஷம்னா நாடி ஆகியவை மிக முக்கியமாக கருதப்படுகிறது.
* சூரிய நாடி, நல்ல சக்தியையும், வெப்பத்தையும் தருகிறது. சந்திர நாடி குளுமையை தருகிறது
* சுஷம்னா நாடி அந்த பரம்பொருளுடன் சம்பந்தப்பட்டு ஆன்மிக பாதையை வகுக்கிறது
* நல்லெண்ணெய் விளக்கு ஏற்ற, சூரிய நாடி சுறுசுறுப்படைகிறது
* நெய் விளக்கு, சுஷம்னா நாடியை துாண்டிவிட உதவுகிறது
* பொதுவாக நெய் தீபம், சகலவித சுகங்களையும் வீட்டிற்கு நலன்களையும் தருகிறது.
திருவிளக்கை எப்போது வேண்டுமானாலும் ஏற்றலாம்; இதற்கு தடையேதும் இல்லை.
ஆனால், பொதுவாக மாலை, 6:30 மணிக்கு ஏற்றுவதே நம் மரபு.
சூரியன் மறைந்ததும், சில விஷ சக்திகள் சுற்றுச்சூழலில் பரவி வீட்டிற்குள்ளும் வர வாய்ப்பிருக்கிறது.
ஒளியின் முன் அந்த விஷ சக்திகள் அடிபட்டு போகும். எனவே, அந்நேரத்தில் விளக்கேற்ற வேண்டும் என்கின்றனர்.
ஒரு நாளிதழில் வெளிவந்த நிகழ்வு இது: அமெரிக்காவில் இருக்கும் தன் மகனின் வீட்டுக்கு சென்றிருந்த ஒரு தாய், மாலையில், மகனும் – மருமகளும் தாமதமாக வீட்டுக்கு வருவதை பார்த்தார். இருவரும் வேலைக்கு செல்பவர்கள்.
ஒருநாள் மகன் முன்னதாகவும், ஒருநாள் மருமகள் முன்னதாகவும் வருவர்.
மகனை அழைத்து, தாமதமாக வரும் காரணம் கேட்க, ‘உனக்கு இதெல்லாம் புரியாதும்மா…
‘எங்கள் இருவருக்கும் பயங்கர, ‘ஸ்ட்ரெஸ்…’ இருவரும், ‘கவுன்சிலிங்’ போய் வருகிறோம்… ஒரு மணி நேரத்துக்கு அந்த டாக்டருக்கு கொடுக்கும் தொகை அதிகம். மிக சிறந்த டாக்டர், அவரது சிகிச்சையில் எல்லாம் சரியாகிவிடும்…’ என்று கூறினான்.
அதற்கு அந்த தாய், ‘நாளை அந்த டாக்டரை பார்க்க போக வேண்டாம்; சீக்கிரம் வீட்டுக்கு வரவேண்டும்…’ என்று கூறினார்.
அடுத்த நாள் மாலை, வீட்டுக்குள் நுழைந்த மகன் – மருமகள் மூக்கை சுகந்த மணம் துளைத்தது.
இருவரையும் கை கால் கழுவி, உடை மாற்றி, பூஜை அறைக்கு வருமாறு கூறினார், தாய்.
அவர்களும் அவ்வாறே செய்தனர். மணம் வீசும் மலர்களின் வாசம்… அழகான தீப ஒளி நிறைந்த அந்த அறையில் சற்றுநேரம் அமர்ந்து, இருவரும் தாமாகவே கண் மூடி அந்த சூழலின் இன்பத்தை அனுபவித்தனர். பின், கண் திறந்தபோது, ‘கவுன்சிலிங்கில் கிடைக்காத அமைதி கிடைத்ததாக சொல்ல…’ தாயார் மகிழ்ந்தார்.
இன்னொரு விஷயம்…
வீட்டில் பெண் குழந்தைகள் இருந்தால், அவர்களை தினமும் விளக்கேற்றும்படி சொல்ல வேண்டும்.
இப்படி செய்தால், அவர்களின் முகப்பொலிவு பன்மடங்கு கூடும். விளக்கேற்றிய வீடு, வீண் போகாது.

 பி.எஸ்.புஷ்பலதா in http://www.dinamalar.com

natarajan

Mail Delivery By Rockets…..

The history of the postal system is inextricably tied to the history of transport. Advances in transportation technology have not only allowed people to travel farther and explore more territory, it also allowed the postal system to expand their influence over a larger area. As new inventions and discoveries shortened the time of travel, messages and letters began to reach distant recipients in lesser time, and the postal system became more efficient. By the time the first trans-pacific airmail was delivered, the postal service had tried every mode of transport available to man, including rockets.

The cover of a rocket mail delivered in the state of Sikkim, India, on 28 September, 1935. Photo credit:regencystamps.com 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The earliest type of missile mail was one which you’ve probably seen in historical movies where a parchment is wrapped around the shaft of an arrow and shot through the air into a castle or enemy territory. A more modern version of the idea was presented to an astonished audience by a German poet and dramatist, Heinrich von Kleist, through a newspaper article in 1810. At that time rocketry was still in its infancy. Rockets of that age were gunpowder powered and were primarily used as artillery in battlefields. Kleist amused himself by calculating that a rocket could deliver a letter from Berlin to Breslau, a distance of 180 miles, in half a day or one-tenth of the time required by a horse mounted carrier.

Kleist’s theory was put into practice on the small Polynesian island of Tonga, halfway around the world, by a British inventor, Sir William Congreve, using rockets he designed. But the rockets were so unreliable that the idea of using them in mail delivery was summarily dismissed, and no further thought was put into it until nearly a century later, when Hermann Julius Oberth, a German physicist and engineer and one of the founding fathers of rocketry, revisited the topic in 1927.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hermann Oberth (center, in profile) demonstrates his tiny liquid-fuel rocket engine in Berlin in 1930. Photo credit: National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution

In June 1928, Professor Oberth delivered a convincing lecture on the occasion of the annual meeting of the Scientific Society of Aeronautics in Danzig, where he proposed the development of small rockets with automatic guidance that could carry urgent mail over distances of 600 to 1,200 miles. Professor Oberth’s lecture generated a great deal of interest throughout the world, and even the American ambassador to Germany took note. But it was a young Austrian engineer that became a pioneer in this field.

Living in the Austrian Alps, the young engineer Friedrich Schmiedl was well aware of the fact that mail delivery was extremely painful between mountain villages. What could be an eight hour walk between two villages could be only two miles apart as the rocket flies. Friedrich Schmiedl was already experimenting with solid-fuel rockets, and in 1928 undertook experiments with stratospheric balloons. After several unsuccessful attempts, Schmiedl launched the first rocket mail in 1931 and delivered 102 letters to a place five kilometers away. The rocket was remotely controlled and landed using a parachute. His second rocket delivered 333 letters.

Schmiedl’s rocket mails inspired several other countries such as Germany, England, the Netherlands, USA, India and Australia to conduct similar experiments with varying degree of success. In 1934, in an attempt to demonstrate to the British the viability of his rocket delivery system, a German businessman named Gerhard Zucker loaded a rocket with 4,800 pieces of mail and launched it from an island in Scotland. Government officials watched as the rocket soared into the sky and exploded, scattering scorched letters all over the beach like confetti. After his failed demonstration, Zucker was deported back to Germany where he was immediately arrested on suspicion of espionage or collaboration with Britain.

Experiments on rocket mail were largely successful in India, where a pioneering aerospace engineer named Stephen Smith perfected the techniques of delivering mail by rocket. Between 1934 and 1944, Smith made 270 launches, at least 80 of which contained mail. Smith created history when he delivered by rocket the first food package containing rice, grains, spices and locally-made cigarettes to the earthquake wracked region of Quetta, now in Pakistan, across a river. Later, Smith tied a cock and a hen together to one of his rockets and launched the frightened birds across another river. Both birds survived the trip and were donated to a private zoo in Calcutta after their ordeal. His next parcel contained a snake and an apple.

Despite his quirky nature and questionable choice of payload, Stephen Smith was wholeheartedly supported by the Maharaja of Sikkim, a British Protectorate in the eastern Himalayas, where he carried most of his rocket experiments.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A 1934 Indian Rocket Mail. Photo credit: www.stampcircuit.com

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Another Indian Rocket Mail from 1934. Photo credit: www.stampcircuit.com

Things didn’t really took off in the US until 1959, when the Post Office Department fired a Regulus cruise missile with its nuclear warhead replaced by two mail containers, towards a Naval Station in Mayport, Florida. The 13,000-pound missile lifted off with 3,000 letters and twenty-two minutes later struck the target at Mayport, 700 miles away. The letters were retrieved, stamped and circulated as usual.

All 3,000 letters were copies of the same written by the Postmaster General. Each crew member of the submarine that launched the missile received a copy of the letter, so did President Eisenhower and other US leaders as well as postmasters from around the world.

“The great progress being made in guided missilery will be utilized in every practical way in the delivery of the United States mail,” the letter read. “You can be certain that the Post Office Department will continue to cooperate with the Defense Department to achieve this objective.”

The successful delivery of the mails prompted Postmaster Summerfield to enthusiastically declare that “before man reaches the moon, mail will be delivered within hours from New York to California, to Britain, to India or Australia by guided missiles.”

But it was not to be. The cost of rocket mail was too high—that little experiment with the Regulus cruise missile cost the US government $1 million, but generated only $240 in revenue by sale of postage stamps. Neither the Post Office nor the Department of Defense could justify the cost of using missile mail, especially when airplanes were already making mail deliveries across the world in a single night at the fraction of a cost.

And that was the end of the program. No further attempts to deliver mail by rockets have been made since then.

Source….. Kaushik in http://www.amusing planet.com

Natarajan